Modalities T-Z

Tui Na

A comprehensive system of therapeutic massage and passive/ active joint restoration originating in China. The system may include categories of general massage, trigger release, strain/ counterstrain, soft circular manipulation, angular maneuvers, moxibustion and cupping techniques.

Tui-na-MassageThe eight main categories utilizes the following techniques:

  • tui – push,
  • na – pull,
  • an – rapid and rhythmic pressing,
  • tao – strong pinch with pressure,
  • nie – kneading,
  • nien – nipping,
  • mao-rubbing, and
  • pai – tapping.

This modality of massage is a part of traditional Chinese Medical practice and as such must utilize the Five Directions of Diagnosis to be effective in rendering treatment. Of the five main diagnostic directions; Asking, Looking, Feeling, Listening and Smelling, only the first three apply strongly to Tui Na therapy as a treatment modality. The patient must be questioned thoroughly in terms of his perspectives of how and when the syndrome first arose, the practitioner must utilize visual diagnostic skills to determine any physical imbalance and/ or possible joint subluxation, and the practitioner must gently probe the injured/ painful area to determine the nature of the imbalance of subluxation should one indeed exist. The final two directions of diagnosis apply primarily to internal imbalance, but Tui Na deals almost exclusively with physical/ structural imbalance only.


Infantile Tuina Therapy: Traditional Chinese Therapeutic Exercises and Techniques by Luan Changye  (January 1, 1989) Foreign Language Press; ISBN: 711900641X

Web resources

Qi Journal Tuina FAQ

The Tui Na Touch The Intensity of Chinese Medicine at Your Fingertips Story and photos by Vesna Vuynovich Kovach Massage and Bodywork Magazine

Chinese Tuina Acupressure for Children, Linda Ellen Larson, Massage Therapy Journal

Thai Massage

Thai-MassageOften known as Yoga for Lazy people! It is a combination of gentle rocking, stretching and movements to loosen joints and muscles.  It is usually done on the floor with the client laying on mats.

Thai Massage Center

The Ancient Massage Foundation

Thai Massage by Massage Therapy Journal

Therapeutic Touch

A healing form developed by Dr. Dolores Krieger, Ph.D., R.N., Professor Emerita of New York University and her mentor Dora Kunz. Unlike most other modalities, it does not involve any physical contact. It utilizes the human energy field or human aura that extends beyond the skin. The idea is that the aura is abundant and flows in balanced patterns in health but is depleted and/ or unbalanced in illness or injury. Therapeutic-TouchPractitioners believe they can restore health by empathetically sensing and adjusting such fields.  It is a consciously-directed process of energy exchange during which the practitioner uses their hands as a focus over the patients body and gently manipulating the body’s energy flow thereby stimulating and enhancing the patient’s own natural healing abilities. Nurses have been drawn to this therapy as it is easy and safe to perform on patients in hospital settings.



Therapeutic Touch Inner Workbook : Ventures in Transpersonal Healing by Delores Krieger (December 1996) Bear & Co; ISBN: 1879181398

The Therapeutic Touch: How to Use Your Hands to Help or to Heal by Dolores Krieger (November 1992) Simon & Schuster (Paper); ISBN: 067176537X

Web resources:

  • Therapeutic Touch Network- Ontario
  • Therapeutic Touch
  • Nurse healers professional association- Therapeutic Touch

Touch For Health

Type of Applied Kinesiology developed by John Thie, DC.  Uses Muscle testing to determine weaknesses in structure.  Treatment is to strengthen the weakness and/or release the tightness in the opposing side.

reflexology-massageBook resources:

Touch for Health : A Practical Guide to Natural Health Using Acupressure Touch and Massage to Improve Postural Balance and Reduce Physical and Mental by John F Thie 108 pages Spl Rev ex edition (December 1979) Devorss & Co; ISBN: 0875161804 ;

Applied Kinesiology : Muscle Response in Diagnosis, Therapy and Preventive Medicine (Thorson’s Inside Health Series) by Tom Valentine, Carole Valentine :Reissue edition (June 1989) Amer Intl Distribution Corp; ISBN: 0892813288

Web resources:

  • Touch for Health- John Thie’s site: founder of Touch for Health
  • Touch for Health Kinesiology Association

Trager Work

Trager-workDeveloped by Milton Trager (1908-1997) who was a boxer, acrobat, physician and an initiate of Maharishi Mahesh Yogi.  He was training as a professional boxer at 18 and his trainer gave him a rub down after each treatment.  One day he offered the trainer a rubdown and the trainer was a amazed at his hands.  Based on gentle, non-intrusive movement to facilitate the release of deep physical and emotional patterns.  The hook up was his trade mark.  It was a natural state of being similar to a meditative state to connect the practitioner with the energy of the client. Mentastics is the movement part of Trager work.

Book resources: 

  • Moving Medicine: The life and work of Milton Trager, by Jack Liskin

Web resources:

  • Trager Institute
  • Jack Blackburn – Trager Practitioner article on “Hook Up”
  • Waves of Hope Teaching the Trager Approach in Post-Tsunami Sri Lanka by Kelly Prentice Massage Therapy Journal

Visceral Manipulation

Soft tissue manipulation of the internal organs to separate adhesions.

Web resources: 

  • Upledger Institute


watsuShiatsu done in a warm pool of water.  The water allows for movement that is not possible in gravity.  This also allows client to feel supported while moving.  The technique uses gentle stretching, rocking, rolling, and swaying.

  • Water, Watsu, and Wellness By Karrie Osborn Massage and Bodywork Magazine
  • Sea of Calm Water Therapy Touches Young Spirits By Karrie Osborn. Massage and Bodywork Magazine
  • Spa Industry, Culture and Evolution Time, Temperature, Touch and Truth By Jonathan Paul De Vierville. Massage and Bodywork Magazine


Developed By William “Dub” Leigh, from his experience and training with Rolfing, Feldenkrais, and Zen training in Hawaii. Regular trainings held around the world. There is a 5 weekend training to learn the 10 session series and a  4 weekend Triggerpoint Anatomy® training.

Web resources: 

  • Zentherapy® Institute
  • Articles:Feldenkrais by Dub Leigh ,  Zen Bodytherapy by Sula Thomas- Forero,  Interview with Dub

Zero Balancing

zero-balancingDeveloped by Fritz Smith, in 1975 after years of studying.  He is an Osteopathic doctor, a Medical doctor, and acupuncturist. He studied Rolfing, Yoga and eastern meditation techniques.  The method works to align the physical body with the energetic body.  Treatments are done with the client fully clothed and is done in a seated position progressing to a reclining position. The energy of the body is evaluated by the practitioner.  The skeletal system is the main focus of the treatment as this is where the deepest and strongest currents of energy exist. The session lasts approximately 40 minutes.  Training in Zero Balancing is a 100-150 hour program.

Book resources: 

  • Zero Balancing: Touching the Energy of Bone by Fritz Smith.

Web resources:

  • Zero Balancing- Fritz Smith, MD.

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